Ecología en Bolivia
versión impresa ISSN 1605-2528
Ecología en Bolivia v.44 n.1 La Paz mayo 2009
Range extension for the endangered Cochabamba Mountain-Finch (Compsospiza garleppi) in Bolivia and new avifaunal records for Potosí department
Extensión del rango de distribución de la ave amenazada, monterita de Cochabamba (Poospiza garleppi) en Bolivia y nuevos registros de avifauna para el departamento de Potosí
José Antonio Balderrama
Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Casilla Nº 538, Cochabamba, Bolivia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Cochabamba Mountain-Finch (Compsospiza garleppi) is an endemic bird of Bolivia, inhabiting open woodlands in the transitional zone between dry inter-Andean valleys and Puna from 2,700 m to 3,900 m (Hennessey et al. 2003, BirdLife International 2009). It is also found in crops surrounded by native vegetation (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Balderrama et al. 2009). The Cochabamba Mountain-Finch is currently considered as Endangered (BirdLife International 2004, 2009) due to its restricted distribution and ongoing habitat fragmentation. It is also considered as zoogeographic endemic to the Central Andes (Stotz et al. 1996, Hennessey et al. 2003), and it is found in Endemic Bird Area 056 (High Andes of Bolivia and Argentina; Stattersfield et al. 1998, Hennessey et al. 2003). The Tunari National Park is the only protected area where it occurs (Hjarsen 1997, Balderrama & Ramirez 2001, Hennessey et al. 2003, BirdLife International 2009).
The Cochabamba Mountain-Finch principally is restricted to mountains surrounding Cochabamba city (Cochabamba department; Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990). The easternmost distributional records were reported from 98-120 km east of Cochabamba city on the road to Santa Cruz (Remsen et al. 1988). According to BirdLife International (2004), the species is documented from 10-11 localities (Remsen et al. 1988, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Fjeldså & Kessler 1996, Balderrama et al. 2009). Its estimated distributional range (Extent of Occurrence) is 3,700 km2 (BirdLife International 2009).
New distributional record
I conducted bird censuses in Polylepis woodlands of Llallahuani (18º03’56”S, 66º04’11”W, altitude 3,300 m, 6 km by road south of Acasio) in extreme northern Potosí department (SW Bolivia) in December 2005. This locality contains several small Polylepis neglecta forest fragments (totaling ca. 10 ha) that are highly disturbed by agricultural activities, with many open areas and presence of livestock, especially sheep.
On 9 December 2005, I observed five Cochabamba Mountain-Finch individuals, two presumed pairs and one lone individual (two individuals were videotaped; video deposited at the Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética). These observations constitute the first record of the species for Potosí department and the southernmost record of the Cochabamba Mountain-Finch, which was thought to be restricted to the Tunari basin in Cochabamba department (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Hennessey et al. 2003, BirdLife International 2004). The population documented in Llallahuani is somewhat isolated from populations in Cochabamba department (Fig. 1), presumably due to the lack of suitable habitat in interjacent areas.
Recent surveys (27-29 November 2008) in the same area in northern Potosí department permitted us to record nine additional Cochabamba Mountain-Finch individuals in two other Polylepis fragments in La Porta and Sikiri (5 ha and 3 ha, respectively). La Porta (18º06’32”S, 66º06’17”W; 3,500 m), where seven individuals were observed, is somewhat disturbed by agricultural activities, with some open areas and presence of livestock. Sikiri (18º05’51”S, 66º08’28”W; 3,500 m) on the other hand, where only two individuals were observed, is highly disturbed by agricultural activities, close to a road and with clear evidence of continuous logging.
I also found three other restricted-range species in the same sites: Maquis Canastero (Asthenes heterura), Bolivian Warbling-Finch (Poospiza boliviana) and Bolivian Blackbird (Oreopsar bolivianus). Observations of Puna Tapaculo (Scytalopus simonsi), Cinereous Conebill (Conirostrum cinereum), Rusty Flowerpiercer (Diglossa sittoides) and Bolivian Warbling-Finch are first records for Potosí department (Hennessey et al. 2003). Moreover, Stripe-crowned Spinetail (Cranioleuca pyrrhophia) reaches its highest altitudinal record in this area (Hennessey et al. 2003).
Further surveys near Acasio may find the Cochabamba Mountain-Finch in additional Polylepis fragments, and this area could potentially be declared an Important Bird Area (IBA) in Bolivia (Soria-Auza & Hennessey 2005), in part also due to the presence of at least three other restricted-range species.
Financial support was provided by the American Bird Conservancy, project “Conservation Status of Polylepis Woodlands, Bolivia”. Latest field work was supported by Rufford Small Grants. I am grateful to N. de la Barra, M. Mercado and L. Alvares for their support during field work; to S.K. Herzog and D. Rejas for improving the English; and to H. Arnal, S.K. Herzog, P.A. Hosner and N. Krabbe for their comments on the manuscript.
Balderrama, J. A. & M. Ramirez. 2001. Diversidad y endemismo de aves en dos fragmentos de Bosques de Polylepis besseri en el Parque Nacional Tunari (Cochabamba - Bolivia). Rev. Bol. Ecol. 9: 45-60.[ Links ]
Balderrama, J. A., M. Crespo & L. F. Aguirre. 2009. Guía ilustrada de campo: Las aves del Parque Nacional Tunari. Centro de Biodiversidad y Genética, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba. 208 p.[ Links ]
BirdLife International. 2004. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD-Rom, Cambridge.[ Links ]
BirdLife International. 2009. Species factsheet: Poospiza garleppi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/6/2009.[ Links ]
Fjeldså, J. & M. Kessler. 1996. Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis woodlands of the highland of Peru and Bolivia. A contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO, Copenhagen. 250 p.[ Links ]
Fjeldså, J. & N. Krabbe. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Svendborg. 876 p.[ Links ]
Hennessey, A.B., S.K. Herzog & F. Sagot. 2003. Lista anotada de las aves de Bolivia. 5ta ed. Asociación Armonía - BirdLife International, Santa Cruz. 238 p.[ Links ]
Hjarsen, T. 1997. Bird fauna and vegetation in natural woodlands and Eucalyptus plantations in the high Andes in Bolivia. Implications for development of sustainable agroforestry techniques. Proceedings of the IUFRO, Conference on Silviculture and Improvements of Eucalyptus. EMBRAPA 4: 89-94.[ Links ]
Soria-Auza, R.W. & A.B. Hennessey. 2005. Áreas importantes para la conservación de las aves en Bolivia. pp. 57-116. En: BirdLife International y Conservation International. Áreas importantes para la conservación e las aves en los Andes tropicales: sitios prioritarios para la conservación de la biodiversidad. BirdLife International, Quito.[ Links ]
Stotz, D., J. Fitzpatrick, T.A Parker III & D. Moskowits. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 478 p.[ Links ]
Stattersﬁeld, A. J., M. J. Crosby, A. J. Long & D. C. Wege. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world. Priorities for conservation status N° 7, Birdlife International, Cambridge. 846 p.[ Links ]
Nota recibida en: Diciembre de 2008.
Manejado por: Sebastián Herzog.
Aceptado en: Junio de 2009.