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Revista de Medio Ambiente y Mineria

versión impresa ISSN 2519-5352


ZAMORA E., Gerardo; HINOJOSA C., Octavio; MEZA-DUMAN, Ruth  y  BLANCO V., Walter. Propuesta de modelo de desarrollo económico local circular en comunidades mineras en la sub cuenca Poopó del altiplano Boliviano con escasez hídrica. REV. MAMYM [online]. 2023, vol.8, n.1, pp.3-15. ISSN 2519-5352.

Abstract In the sub-basin of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian altiplano, whose waters flow into the lake, are the municipalities of Huanuni, Poopó, Pazña, Machacamarca and Antequera, where there are accumulations of waste and tailings from past mining operations, these are characterized by the high generation of acid rock drainage, which is the main source of heavy metal contamination of surface and groundwater in the sub-basin. On the other hand, and from another perspective, the mining communities of the Poopó sub-basin do not have urban wastewater treatment plants or sanitary landfills for the disposal of solid urban waste, which means that both sewage and garbage eventually end up in the rivers, magnifying the impacts on the aquatic ecosystems of the area and the risk to the health of its inhabitants. Furthermore, due to climate change, mining areas are increasingly vulnerable in terms of water scarcity, which suggests that there will be, if it has not already begun, a struggle between whether the water shortage will be for the use of cooperative mining operations or to cover the supply to the mining populations and their agricultural production. In addition, agricultural production rates are decreasing due to the lack of water (average annual rainfall of 360 mm) and the quality of irrigation water, contaminated with dissolved toxic heavy metals; in this context, the lack of agricultural products has a strong impact on food security, not only in mining communities, but also in the cities. In the context described above, it is easy to establish which have been the significant effects of environmental impact caused by the application of a linear economy in the local economic development of mining communities; therefore, it is essential to develop a proposal for a circular local economic development model that generates the technical bases to implement circularity in the local economic development of mining communities in areas of water scarcity in the Bolivian highlands located in the Poopó sub-basin, in order to contribute to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants from the establishment of a proposal focused on: The low-cost environmental closure of mining environmental liabilities that are altering the quality of irrigation water; in addition, postulate an intelligent management of water resources, involving the design, sizing and implementation of treatment plants, both for acidic water inside the mine, as for urban wastewat er from the mining community, for use in both mineral processing and irrigation; and also, the proper management of urban solid waste (garbage), generated by the mining population, in order to produce compost, from both the organic fraction of the same and the sludge from wastewater treatment of the community, which will be used both for soil fertilization to improve agricultural production in solar tents, and for obtaining artificial top soil for the rehabilitation through dry covers of the storage sites of waste generating ARD, employing women palliris (rescuers of minerals from waste dumps). The proposal is based on the results of several research papers that have been developed separately and over the course of a decade.

Palabras clave : Circular Economy in Mining; Circular local development; Mining communities; Poopò sub-basin.

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