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Revista Médica La Paz

versión On-line ISSN 1726-8958

Resumen

MOLLINEDO, Zoraida  y  MOLLINEDO, Sergio. LEISHMANIASIS IN BOLIVIA. Rev. Méd. La Paz [online]. 2020, vol.26, n.1, pp. 50-66. ISSN 1726-8958.

A review of last three decades on leishmaniasis in Bolivia is presented. Between 1983 and 2015, it has been reported 54540 cases of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), 46406 cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), 8100 Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL), 5 Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (DCL), and 56 Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Most of the patients came from the Amazon river basin (97.9%) while the rest from Rio de la Plata's basin. Native cases and municipalities with natural transmission sources have increased from 80 municipalities in 2000 to 91 on 2007 and 95 on 2014; increasing from five to seven endemic states. Clinical epidemiological characteristics are similar in Argentina, Perú and Brasil in the border areas; and Bolivian municipalities with Perú and Brasil have higher prevalence. Seven of 121 registered Phlebotominae species are incriminated in the transmission of six Leishmania types circulating the country in a new scenario with autochthonous cases more dispersed in time and space, with multiple cultural patterns in at least 15 eco-regions that varyfrom 170 to 2700 meters. The under-reporting of cases and the lack of medication has deepened over this last decade; diagnosis is rudimentary in a precarious network of laboratories that has not implemented diagnosis of LV by rapid tests yet.

Palabras clave : Leishmaniasis; Neglected diseases; Emergent diseases; Bolivia.

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