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Cuadernos Hospital de Clínicas

versión impresa ISSN 1562-6776

Resumen

SAN MIGUEL SIMBRON, José Luis. Principios epistemológicos en investigación aplicada en salud: A propósito de la investigación de la anemia ferropénica en niños residentes de gran altitud. Cuad. - Hosp. Clín. [online]. 2008, vol.53, n.2, pp. 23-32. ISSN 1562-6776.

ABSTRACT The epistemiologic principles and their process allow an inductive explanation which generates scientific knowledge beginning from the operational research at high altitude. From the research already conducted on anaemia in children at high altitude we present here the abstract on this subject, showing the objectives and results of the numerous studies. Objective Epistemiological assessment of the different studies. One study defines the cut off points of ferropenic anaemia in children between 6 months and 9 years old, and its prevalence. Another study determines the efficacy of two strategies for the control of anaemia: iron supplementation and iron enrichment of Api. Method The epistemiology uses the inductive explanation and probability to obtain applicable scientific knowledge in anaemic children at high altitude. The supplementation with iron compounds acts like a “gold standard” and permitted the obtention of cut off points that define the ferropenic anaemia and its prevalence. The second study established the efficacy of the iron supplementation by the daily vs. weekly modes, by means of a Randomized Blinded Trial with a placebo group. Boys and girls were diagnosed as anaemic children with haemoglobin concentrations egual to or less than 144 g/L. Group 1 received a placebo (n=57), group 2 (n=58) ferrous sulphate 1 day per week, and group 3 (n=58) 5 days per week during 16 weeks. The nutritional status was assessed by weight/height,weight/age,height/age. The third study determined the efficacy of enrichment of Api containing ferrous sulphate vs. other iron compounds. Results The iron supplementation permitted the obtention of cut off points that defined anaemia at high altitude with a prevalence of 22.4 to 70% in children of 6 months to 9 years old. The iron supplementation of 1 day per week has the same efficacy as the 5 days per week supplementation for correcting anaemia. The Api enrichment with ferrous sulphate is the best option. Many statistic analyses have been applied. Conclusion Applied investigation remains fundamental as science, and there exists science as well in the line of research that we have conducted, and the production of scientific knowledge can be fully acknowledged in the field of iron deficiency anemia at high altitude which contributes solutions based on scientific evidence for decision making in priority health problems.

Palabras clave : Anemia; umbral; prevalencia; suplementación intermitente; niños; altitud; epistemología en investigación aplicada; medicina basada en evidencia.

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